How do you know which pronunciation to use?
Learn the difference between voiceless and voiced sounds.
Words ending in Voiceless Sounds
If the last sound of the word before the "-ed" ends in a voiceless sound, other than /t/, (i.e. tʃ, f, k, p, s, ʃ , θ/), then pronounce the "-ed" like a /t/.
If the last sound of the word ends in a voiced sound, other than /d/, (i.e. /b, g, v, ð, z, ʒ, dʒ, m, n, ŋ, l, r, w, j/), then pronounce the "-ed" like a /d/.
What are the exceptions to the rule?
Words ending in /d/ or /t/
If the last sound of the word has a /d/ or t/t sound before the "-ed", then pronounce the "-ed" as "id" as in "kid," adding an extra syllable.